Visvesvaraya
ಮೋಕ್ಷಗುಂಡಂ ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯ

ಸರ್ ಎಮ್‍ವಿ ಮೋಕ್ಷಗುಂಡಂ ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯ ಎಂದು ಜನಪ್ರಿಯರಾಗಿದ್ದ ಇವರು, ಭಾರತದ ಗಣ್ಯ ಎಂಜಿನಿಯರರಲ್ಲಿ ಒಬ್ಬರು ಮತ್ತು ಮೈಸೂರು ಸಂಸ್ಥಾನದ ದಿವಾನರಾಗಿದ್ದವರು.

ಬಾಲ್ಯ, ವಿದ್ಯಾಭ್ಯಾಸ ಹಾಗೂ ವೃತ್ತಿಜೀವನ

ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯನವರ ತಂದೆ 'ಶ್ರೀನಿವಾಸ ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರಿ', ತಾಯಿ 'ವೆಂಕಾಚಮ್ಮ'. ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯನವರ ತಂದೆ ಸಂಸ್ಕೃತ ವಿದ್ವಾಂಸರು; ಧರ್ಮ ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರಗಳನ್ನು ಆಳವಾಗಿ ಅಭ್ಯಾಸ ಮಾಡಿದ್ದರಲ್ಲದೆ ಆಯುರ್ವೇದ ತಜ್ಞರೂ ಆಗಿದ್ದರು. ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯನವರು ಜನಿಸಿದ್ದು ಬೆಂಗಳೂರಿನಿಂದ ೪೦ ಮೈಲಿ ದೂರದಲ್ಲಿರುವ ಮುದ್ದೇನಹಳ್ಳಿಯಲ್ಲಿ. ಅವರು ೧೫ ವರ್ಷದವರಿರುವಾಗಲೆ ತಂದೆಯು ನಿಧನರಾದರು. ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯನವರ ಪ್ರಾಥಮಿಕ ಶಿಕ್ಷಣ ಚಿಕ್ಕಬಳ್ಳಾಪುರದಲ್ಲಿ ಮತ್ತು ಪ್ರೌಢ ಶಿಕ್ಷಣ ಬೆಂಗಳೂರಿನಲ್ಲಿ ನಡೆಯಿತು. ೧೮೮೧ ರಲ್ಲಿ ಮದರಾಸು ವಿಶ್ವವಿದ್ಯಾಲಯದಿಂದ ಬಿಎ ಪದವಿಯನ್ನು ಪಡೆದು ನಂತರ ಪುಣೆಯ ವಿಜ್ಞಾನ ಕಾಲೇಜಿನಿಂದ ಸಿವಿಲ್ ಎಂಜಿನಿಯರಿಂಗ್ ಪದವಿಯನ್ನು ಪಡೆದರು.

ನೀರಾವರಿ

ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯನವರು ನಂತರ ಮುಂಬೈ ನಗರದಲ್ಲಿ ಲೋಕೋಪಯೋಗಿ ಇಲಾಖೆಯನ್ನು ಸೇರಿದರು ೧೮೮೪ರಲ್ಲಿ. ಇದರ ನಂತರ ಭಾರತೀಯ ನೀರಾವರಿ ಕಮಿಷನ್ ಇಂದ ಅವರಿಗೆ ಆಮಂತ್ರಣ ಬಂದಿತು. ಈ ಕಮಿಷನ್ ಅನ್ನು ಸೇರಿದ ನಂತರ ದಖನ್ ಪ್ರಸ್ತಭೂಮಿಯಲ್ಲೇ ಉತ್ತಮವಾದ ನೀರಾವರಿ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆಯನ್ನು ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯನವರು ಪರಿಚಯಿಸಿದರು. ಸರ್ ಎಮ್. ವಿ. ಯವರು ಅರ್ಥರ್ ಕಾಟನ್ ರವರಿಂದ ಬಹಳಷ್ಟು ಪ್ರಭಾವಿತರಾಗಿದ್ದರು. ಕಾವೇರಿ ನದಿಗೆ ಅಣೆಕಟ್ಟು ಕಟ್ಟುವಲ್ಲಿ ಅವರು ತಿರುಚಿರಾಪಳ್ಳಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಚೋಳ ರಾಜರಿಂದ ನಿರ್ಮಿಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟ ಹಾಗೂ ೧೮ನೇ ಶತಮಾನದ ಅರ್ಧದಲ್ಲಿ ಅರ್ಥರ್ ಕಾಟನ್ ರವರಿಂದ ಸಂಪೂರ್ಣವಾಗಿ ನವಿಕರಿಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟ ಬೃಹತ್ ಅಣೆಕಟ್ಟು [ಗ್ರಾಂಡ್ ಅಣಿಕಟ್] ನ್ನು ನೋಡಿ ಪ್ರಭಾವಿತರಾಗಿದ್ದರು ಮತ್ತು ಮಹಾರಾಜರಲ್ಲಿ ಇದನ್ನು ವರದಿ ಮಾಡಿದ್ದರು.

ಅಣೆಕಟ್ಟುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಉಪಯೋಗಿಸಲಾಗುವ 'ಸ್ವಯಂಚಾಲಿತ ಫ್ಲಡ್ ಗೇಟ್ ವಿನ್ಯಾಸ' ವೊಂದನ್ನು ಕಂಡುಹಿಡಿದು ಅದಕ್ಕಾಗಿ 'ಪೇಟೆಂಟ್' ಪಡೆದರು. ಮೊದಲ ಬಾರಿಗೆ ೧೯೦೩ ರಲ್ಲಿ ಈ ಫ್ಲಡ್ ಗೇಟ್ ಗಳು ಪುಣೆಯ 'ಖಡಕ್ವಾಸ್ಲಾ' ಅಣೆಕಟ್ಟಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಸ್ಥಾಪಿತವಾದವು. ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಅವು ಯಶಸ್ವಿಯಾದ ನಂತರ 'ಗ್ವಾಲಿಯರ್ ನ ಟಿಗ್ರಾ ಅಣೆಕಟ್ಟು' ಮತ್ತು ಕರ್ನಾಟಕದ 'ಕೃಷ್ಣರಾಜಸಾಗರ' ಅಣೆಕಟ್ಟುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಹ ಉಪಯೋಗಿತವಾದವು. ಈ ಗೇಟ್ ಗಳ ಉದ್ದೇಶ ಅಣೆಕಟ್ಟಿಗೆ ಹಾನಿ ಮಾಡದೆ ಗರಿಷ್ಠ ಮಟ್ಟದ ನೀರನ್ನು ಶೇಖರಿಸಿಡುವುದೇ ಆಗಿತ್ತು. ಕೃಷ್ಣರಾಜಸಾಗರವನ್ನು ಕಟ್ಟಿದಾಗ ಅದು ಆ ಕಾಲದಲ್ಲಿ ಭಾರತದ ಅತ್ಯಂತ ದೊಡ್ಡ ಅಣೆಕಟ್ಟು. ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯನವರು ದೇಶಾದ್ಯಂತ ಪ್ರಸಿದ್ಧರಾದದ್ದು ಹೈದರಾಬಾದ್ ನಗರವನ್ನು ಪ್ರವಾಹಗಳಿಂದ ರಕ್ಷಿಸಲು ಪ್ರವಾಹ ರಕ್ಷಣಾ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆಯನ್ನು ಅವರು ಏರ್ಪಡಿಸಿದಾಗ. ಇವರ ಮುಖ್ಯ ಸೇವಕ ಪ್ರಶಾ೦ತ್.

ದಿವಾನರಾಗಿ

೧೯೦೮ರಲ್ಲಿ ಸ್ವಯಂ-ನಿವೃತ್ತಿ ಘೋಷಿಸಿದ ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯನವರು ನಂತರ ಮೈಸೂರು ಸಂಸ್ಥಾನದ ದಿವಾನರಾಗಿ ಸೇವೆ ಸಲ್ಲಿಸಿದರು. ಮಹಾರಾಜ ಕೃಷ್ಣರಾಜ ಒಡೆಯರ್ ಅವರ ಜೊತೆ ಮೈಸೂರು ರಾಜ್ಯದ ಒಟ್ಟಾರೆ ಬೆಳವಣಿಗೆಗೆ ಕೆಲಸ ಮಾಡಿದರು. ೧೯೧೭ ರಲ್ಲಿ ಬೆಂಗಳೂರಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಸರ್ಕಾರಿ ಎಂಜಿನಿಯರಿಂಗ್ ಕಾಲೇಜನ್ನು ಸ್ಥಾಪಿಸಿದರು. ಇದೇ ಕಾಲೇಜಿಗೆ ನಂತರ ಅವರ ಹೆಸರನ್ನೇ ಇಡಲಾಯಿತು (ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯ ಕಾಲೇಜ್ ಅಫ್ ಇಂಜಿನಿಯರಿಂಗ್). ಮೈಸೂರು ವಿಶ್ವವಿದ್ಯಾಲಯದ ಬೆಳವಣಿಗೆಗಾಗಿಯೂ ಶ್ರಮಿಸಿದರು.

ಗೌರವಗಳು

ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯನವರು ದಿವಾನರಾಗಿದ್ದಾಗ ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷ್ ಸರ್ಕಾರ ಅವರಿಗೆ "ಸರ್" ಪದವಿಯನ್ನು ನೀಡಿತು.

೧೯೫೫ ರಲ್ಲಿ ಭಾರತ ಸರ್ಕಾರದ ಅತ್ಯುಚ್ಚ ಗೌರವವಾದ ಭಾರತ ರತ್ನ ಲಭಿಸಿತು. ಸರ್. ಎಂ. ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯನವರು ಭಾರತ ರತ್ನ ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿ ಪಡೆದ ಮೊದಲ ಕನ್ನಡಿಗರು.

ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯನವರ ಹೆಸರಿಡಲಾದ ಪ್ರಮುಖ ಸಂಸ್ಥೆಗಳು

  • ಬೆಳಗಾವಿಯಲ್ಲಿರುವ ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯ ತಾಂತ್ರಿಕ ವಿಶ್ವವಿದ್ಯಾಲಯ.
  • ಯೂನಿವರ್ಸಿಟಿ ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯ ತಾಂತ್ರಿಕ ಮಹಾ ವಿದ್ಯಾಲಯ, ಕೆ.ಆರ್.ಸರ್ಕಲ್, ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು-೫೬೦೦೦೧
  • ಸರ್.ಎಂ.ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯ ತಾಂತ್ರಿಕ ಮಹಾ ವಿದ್ಯಾಲಯ, ಕೃಷ್ಣ ದೇವರಾಯ ನಗರ, ಹುಣಸ ಮಾರನ ಹಳ್ಳಿ, ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು-೫೬೨೧೫೭
  • ಭದ್ರಾವತಿಯಲ್ಲಿರುವ ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯ ಕಬ್ಬಿಣ ಮತ್ತು ಉಕ್ಕಿನ ಕಾರ್ಖಾನೆ.
  • ಬೆಂಗಳೂರಿನ ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯ ಕೈಗಾರಿಕಾ ಮತ್ತು ತಾಂತ್ರಿಕ ವಸ್ತುಸಂಗ್ರಹಾಲಯ ಇವರ ಜನ್ಮಶತಮಾನೋತ್ಸವದ ಅಂಗವಾಗಿ ಸ್ಥಾಪಿತವಾದದ್ದು.

ಕರ್ನಾಟಕದ ಹೊರಗೆ

  • 'ಮಹಾರಾಷ್ಟ್ರ'ದ ನಾಗಪುರದಲ್ಲಿರುವ 'ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯ ರೀಜನಲ್ ಇಂಜಿನಿಯರಿಂಗ್ ಕಾಲೇಜು'(ಈಗ 'ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯ ನ್ಯಾಷನಲ್ ಇನಸ್ಟಿಟಿಟ್ಯೂಟ್ ಆಫ್ ಟೆಕ್ನಾಲೊಜಿ' ಎಂದು ಹೆಸರಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ).
  • 'ಸರ್.ಎಂ.ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯ ಇನಸ್ಟಿಟಿಟ್ಯೂಟ್ ಆಫ್ ಸೈನ್ಸ್ ಅಂಡ್ ಟೆಕ್ನಾಲಜಿ',ಅಂಗಲ್ಲು,ಮದನಪಲ್ಲಿ,ಚಿತ್ತೂರ್ ಜಿಲ್ಲೆ,ಆಂಧ್ರ ಪ್ರದೇಶ್.
  • 'ವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರಯ್ಯ ಇನಸ್ಟಿಟಿಟ್ಯೂಟ್ ಆಫ್ ಟೆಕ್ನಾಲಜಿ ಅಂಡ್ ಸೈನ್ಸ್', ಚೌಡರಪಲ್ಲಿ, ದೇವರಕದ್ರ ಮಂಡಲ್, ಮೆಹಬೂಬ್ ನಗರ,ಆಂಧ್ರ ಪ್ರದೇಶ್.

Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya (KCIE, popularly known as Sir MV; 15 September 1861 – 14 April 1962) was a notable Indian engineer, scholar, statesman and the Diwan of Mysore during 1912 to 1918. He was a recipient of the Indian Republic's highest honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 1955. He was knighted as a Commander of the British Indian Empire by King George V for his myriad contributions to the public good. Every year, 15 September is celebrated as Engineer's Day in India in his memory. He is held in high regard pre-eminent engineer of India. He was the chief designer of the flood protection system for the city of Hyderabad, as well as the chief engineer responsible for the construction of the Krishna Raja Sagara dam in Mysore.

Early years

Visvesvaraya was born in 1860, in the Kingdom of Mysore, to a Telugu Brahmin family of Mokshagundam Srinivasa Sastry and Venkatalakshmamma in present day Muddenahalli village, 40 miles from Bangalore, India. His father had migrated from Kurnool. Visvesvaraya lost his father at the age of 15. He enrolled for primary school in Chikballapur, and attended high school in Bangalore. He earned his Bachelor of Arts from Madras University in 1881 and later studied civil engineering at the prestigious College of Engineering, Pune, popularly known as COEP.

Career as an engineer

Upon graduating as an engineer, Visvesvaraya took up a job with the Public Works Department (PWD) of Mumbai and was later invited to join the Indian Irrigation Commission. He implemented an extremely intricate system of irrigation in the Deccan area. He also designed and patented a system of automatic weir water floodgates that were first installed in 1903 at the Khadakvasla Reservoir near Pune. These gates were employed to raise the flood supply level of storage in the reservoir to the highest level likely to be attained by a flood without causing any damage to the dam. Based on the success of these gates, the same system was installed at the Tigra Dam in Gwalior and the Krishnaraja Sagara (KRS) Dam in Mandya/ Mysore,Karnataka. In 1906-07, Government of India sent him to Eden,(Africa) to study water supply and drainage system and the project prepared by him was implemented in Eden successfully.

Career as an engineer

Upon graduating as an engineer, Visvesvaraya took up a job with the Public Works Department (PWD) of Mumbai and was later invited to join the Indian Irrigation Commission. He implemented an extremely intricate system of irrigation in the Deccan area. He also designed and patented a system of automatic weir water floodgates that were first installed in 1903 at the Khadakvasla Reservoir near Pune. These gates were employed to raise the flood supply level of storage in the reservoir to the highest level likely to be attained by a flood without causing any damage to the dam. Based on the success of these gates, the same system was installed at the Tigra Dam in Gwalior and the Krishnaraja Sagara (KRS) Dam in Mandya/ Mysore,Karnataka. In 1906-07, Government of India sent him to Eden,(Africa) to study water supply and drainage system and the project prepared by him was implemented in Eden successfully. Visvesvaraya achieved celebrity status when he designed a flood protection system for the city of Hyderabad. He was instrumental in developing a system to protect Visakhapatnam port from sea erosion

Visvesvaraya supervised the construction of the KRS Dam across the Cauvery River from concept to inauguration. This dam created the biggest reservoir in Asia when it was built. He was rightly called the "Father of modern Mysore state" (now Karnataka): During his period of service with the Government of Mysore state, he was responsible for the founding of, (under the Patronage of Mysore Government), the Mysore Soap Factory, the Parasitoide Laboratory, the Mysore Iron & Steel Works (now known as Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Limited) in Bhadravathi, the Sri Jayachamarajendra Polytechnic Institute, the Bangalore Agricultural University, the State Bank of Mysore, The Century Club, Mysore Chambers of Commerce and numerous other industrial ventures. He encouraged private investment in industry during his tenure as Diwan of Mysore. He was instrumental in charting out the plan for road construction between Tirumala and Tirupati. He was known for sincerity, time management and dedication to a cause

Diwan of Mysore

After opting for voluntary retirement in 1908, he took a foreign tour to study industrialised nations and after, for a short period he worked for the Nizam of Hyderabad. He suggested flood relief measures for Hyderabad town, which was under constant threat of floods by Moosi river. Later, during November 1909, Visvesvaraya was appointed as Chief Engineer of Mysore State. Further, during the year, 1912, he was appointed as Diwan (First Minister) of the princely state of Mysore. He was Diwan for 7 years.

With the support of Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV, Maharaja of Mysore, Visvesvaraya made an arguably unprecedented contribution as Diwan to the all-round development of the state. Not only the achievements listed above, but many other industries and public works owe their inception or active nurturing to him. He was instrumental in the founding of the Government Engineering College at Bangalore in 1917, one of the first engineering institutes in India. This institution was later named the University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering after its founder. It remains one of the very most reputed institutes of engineering in Karnataka. He also commissioned several new railway lines in Mysore states.

Awards and honours

Visvesvaraya was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) in 1911. In 1915, while he was the Diwan of Mysore, Visvesvaraya was knighted as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (KCIE) by the British for his myriad contributions to the public good. After India attained independence, he was given the nation's highest honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 1955.

He was honoured with honorary membership of the international Institution of Civil Engineers (based in London) and a fellowship of the Indian Institute of Science (based in Bangalore). He was awarded several honorary doctoral degrees like D.Sc., LL.D., D.Litt. from eight universities in India. He was president of the 1923 Session of the Indian Science Congress. Sir M.V. was awarded honorary Membership of London Institution of Civil Engineers for an unbroken 50 years. He was the most popular person from Karnataka, in a newspaper survey conducted by Praja Vani

Memorial at Muddenahalli

The Visvesvaraya National Memorial Trust manages a memorial of Visvesvaraya in his birthplace of Muddenahalli. The memorial exhibits his awards, titles and personal belongings of his, including his living room, spectacles, cups, his copy of the Webster's dictionary, and a block with which his visiting cards were printed. Models of the Krishna Raja Sagar dam, which Visvesvaraya designed and supervised the construction of, are also exhibited. The memorial is located adjacent to his house, which was refurbished and regarded as a temple by the locals.

Recognition

Visvesvaraya has received recognition in various fields, most notably the education sector and the engineering sector. Visvesvaraya Technological University, the University to which most engineering colleges in Karnataka are affiliated to, has been named in his honour, as well as prominent colleges like University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering, Bangalore, Sir M. Visvesvaraya Institute of Technology, Bangalore and Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur. College of Engineering, Pune, his alma mater, has erected a statue in his honor. The Visvesvaraya Industrial and Technological Museum, a museum in Bangalore is named in his honor. IIIT-Bangalore is being built at Muddenahalli, the birthplace of Sir.MV as an honour to this great Engineer. The college is expected to be operational soon.

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